". Forms of literature ~ Rajasthan Preparation

Forms of literature

Forms of literature 

1) Poetry - poetry is a piece of literature writtern in meter (छंद) and verse

There are two types of poetry 

1) Narrative - poems that tells a story 

Epic (महाकाव्य)


2) Non narrative - poems that contain thoughts of the poet.



Sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines written in iambic pentameter 

Pentameter has 5 feets and 10 syllables

Sonnets have a definite rhyme scheme and fixed stenza structure

Sonnet origin in Italian language 

Sonnet was introduced into english in 16th century

Mainly there are two ypes of sonnet

1) Petrarchan sonnet/Italian sonnet/miltonic sonnet

Stanza structure of petrarchan sonnet devides into two part

Octave - it contains 8 lines

Sestate - it contains 6 lines

Rhyme scheme of petrarchan sonnet

a b b a

a b b a

c d c or c d e

c d c or c d e

Volta - it is a change of thought occurs in petrarchan sonnet, it generally occurs in the 9th line of sonnet

1)Shakespearean sonnet/english sonnet

Shakespearean sonnet stanza structure devides into two parts

1) Quatrains- This sonnet contains 3 quatrains with 12 lines

2) Couplet - Couplet contais 2 lines

Rhyme scheme

a b a b

c d c d

e f e f

g g

Spenserian sonnet 

This is a one type of Shakespearean sonnet

Rhyme scheme 

a b a b

b c b c

c d c d

e e

Curtal sonnet 

It has ten lines and a half line

It was invented by G m hopkins



It is a poem of mourning (शोक) and lamantation (विलाप)

The elegy is identified by its subject matter 

Pestral elegy 

In a pastral elegy the shepherd mourns the death of a fellow shepherd

Lycidas is a pastral elegy written by john milton

2) Prose 

Any writting that is not poem is prose

Prose has two types 

1. fiction (कथा साहित्य) - We include Short story, novels in fiction 

Short story - It is a piece of prose fiction that can be read in one sitting

Elements of short story

Setting- The time and location in which the story  takes place

Plot - sequence of events in the story 

Characters - protagonist and antagonist 

Conflict - it is essential to the plot

Theme - The main idea of story

2. Non Fiction - We include essays, biographies and autobiographies in non fiction 

3) Drama 

Drama is a type of literature that is written for the purpose of being peformed before an audience 

The story of drama told through actions and dialogue 

Elements of drama

1) Plot - The sequence of events in a story

2) Character (पात्र)

Protagonist - The main character

3) Action 


5) Atmosphere 

Structure of drama

It has 5 parts


Rising action


Falling action


Types of drama

Mainly it has two types 

1) Tregedy 

 The play that ends unhappily 

The purpose of Tregedy is 'catharsis'

Catharsis term refers to the effect of Tregedy on viewer

Elements of tregedy 

Tragic hero (protagonist)

Tragic flow (दोष)

False step

Change of protagonist fortune (भाग्य) from good to bad

Death of protagonist 

Devices of drama

1) Soliloquy (आत्म कथन)

2) Tragic flow 

3) petripetia - A turning point 

4) monologue - A long speech made by a character 

5) poetic justice- In poetic justice virtue(अच्छाई) is rewarded and viciousness (बुराई) is punished

Conflict - Struggle between two opposing forces, conflict is the essence of drama

Comic relief- The interruption of tregedy by a comedy episode

Dramatic irony - in dramatic irony the audience has more knowledge of facts than a character 

Aside - A short soliloquy 

Climax - The point of highest interest 

Catastrophe- The last action or scene that completes the plot in a tragedy, the end of Tregedy 

2) Comedy - The play that ends happily

Types of comedy 

Mainly there are two types of comedy 

1)High comedy - Comedy that intellectual laughter through wit (वाकपटुता) and humour 

(ऐसी comedy जिसमे व्यक्ति द्वारा अपनी बातो से हंसाया जाता है एवं उसकी बाते श्रोता को सोचने पर विवश करती है।)

Types of high comedy 

Romantic comedy - A light hearted comedy involving young lovers 

Comedy of manners /ratoration comedy -

 a play that satrises(हास्य-व्यंग्य)manners and affectations of particular social class

2) Low comedy - comedy that evokes laughter through jokes and physical actions

Type of low comedy 

Farce - A type of that makes use of highly exaggerated and funny situations 

Comedy of manance - fear and danger become the source of comedy

Denovement - A comedy ends with denovement 

2) Tragi comedy 

A play that combines the element of both tragedy and comedy 

Its riging action is tragi and falling Action is comedy

3) Melodrama 

 It is a play which is nighter comedy nor tragedy 

It is also ends with denovement

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